BIO-GAS -A BOON FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION SYSTEM
Posted June 23, 2008on:
The world today is behind two resources – energy and water. Over the years man has utilized positively or negatively various conventional resources to satisfy his needs and greed. Thus, limited storage of resources have been depleting steadily. Hence the propagation of non-conventional energy sources and their utilization is imperative today.
Bio gas generated from locally available waste material seems to be one of the answers to the energy problem in most rural areas of developing countries. Gas generation consumes about one fourth of the dung but available heat of gas is about 20% more than that of obtained by burning the entire amount of dung directly. This is mainly due to very high efficiency (60 %) of utilization compared to poor efficiency (11%) of burning dung cakes directly. The technology thus seeded and spawned is populist technology based on ‘Nature’s income and not on nature’s capital’ so being an agricultural country use of bio-gas as a fuel for cooking or lighting purpose can be the best solution for all Indian farmer families.
Potential for Bio-gas energy
The potential of renewable energy in India is estimated as 1,00,000 MW while for bio-gas and bio-mass it is 19,500 MW. So there is need to bring about change in mind to focus on renewable sources of energy. No matter whether you get the power from Thermal Power station , Hydro Power Plant or from Bio-gas Plant, the end product is energy and power.
Bio-gas technology – General Description
Bio-gas or gober-gas is clear, odorless combustible gas which is produced when organic matter content in animal excrements like dung, human night soil, parts of a tender plants or residues like leaves, stems and straws are anaerobically fermented with the help of methenological bacteria in air and water tight containers called bio-gas digester.
Chemically, a useful gas is just a methane gas. It’s chemical composition consist of one part of carbon (C) and four parts of Hydrogen molecule. It’s chemical formula is CH4 .Bio-gas burns with clear blue flame without giving any smoke. It’s flame temperature is up to 800 oC and it has calorific value of 5650 KCAL/ m3
Bio-gas is a mixture of :
Methane (CH4 ) : 50 to 70 %
Carbon-dioxide (CO2) : 30 to 40 %
Hydrogen (H2 ) : 5 to 10 %
Nitrogen (N2 ) : 1 to 2 %
Hydrogen Sulphide (H2 S) : Small quantity
Bio-gas is generated when bacteria degrade biological material in absence of oxygen process known as anaerobic digestion. This process produces less temperature hence valuable in terms of energy conservation.
One cubic meter of biogas is equivalent to –
3.47 Kg of wood
0.63 liter of kerosene oil
0.61 liter of diesel oil
1.5 Kg Of coal
1.25 KWh of electricity
0.45 Kg of LPG
13 Kg of fuel dung
0.5 Kg of butane.
It is non polluting
It gives cheap and easily available energy.
It uses waste like animal and human excreta and plant residues, which can otherwise create undesirable conditions. So it can give hygienic, clean and safe atmosphere around populated areas.
Its slurry could be used as a nutrient rich manure in farms and could tremendously improved agriculture production.
It can substitute firewood for cooking, heating, fuel and kerosene for lighting so saving in foreign currency normally spent in fuel and fertilizers.
Socially it can save a lot of time and labour in activities such as cleaning, washing and cooking, which they can use for other income generating /saving activities to care more for their children and to learn.Environmentally information technology can save wood and through that help to save vulnerable forest, soil, water and clean of the environment.